Donor egg IVF is a fertility treatment in which the egg from the donor is mixed with the sperm from the biological father in the laboratory. If embryos are produced they are transferred to the recipient’s uterus. If this results in a pregnancy, the baby thus born will have genetic linkage to the donor of eggs.
A need for egg donation may arise for a number of reasons. Infertile couple may resort to acquiring eggs through egg donation when the female partner may not have eggs or poor quality eggs because of advanced reproductive age or other reasons.
Reasons of compromised egg quantity / quality
- Premature ovarian failure (POF), defined as woman less than 40 years old with persistent amenorrhoea & raised gonadotropins. It affect 1% of female population. Majority are idiopathic, but about 20% are suspected to be autoimmune in nature.
- Chemotherapy & Radiation treatment for cancer.
- Compromise or Removal of the ovaries for treatment of malignancies or for non- cancerous conditions like infection, torsion or over aggressive removal of dermoids or endometrioma.
- Poor or compromised ovarian reserve because of advanced reproductive age.
- Repeated IVF failures because of poor fertilization rates or poor oocyte quality.
- Recurrent pregnancy loss.
- Rarely ovaries inaccessible to either transvaginal or laparoscopic route.
- Physiological menopause.
- Congenital absence of eggs.
- Turner Syndrome (45 X o).
- Gonadal dysgenesis.
- Inheritable diseases.
The IVF procedure is done on egg donor and the eggs are fertilized with partner’s sperms. The resultant embryos are then either transferred to the recipient’s uterus if her cycle is synchronized with the donor’s cycle or they are frozen and then transferred after preparing the recipient’s uterine lining.